International project management(IPM) is the management of projects that involve multi-national resources and teams working together to attain the project goals.
With globalization, businesses tend to be no longer confined within their national boundaries. They expand internationally to achieve the basic goals like:
- Increasing their market share
- Reducing the overall cost by leveraging international talents and resources
Examples of International Projects
- A Singaporean company building a manufacturing unit in India, with a Spanish partner; value chain organizations in Germany and Brazil; and a government agency in Vietnam.
- A Belgian charitable organization providing emergency medical services to people in gulf countries; five other countries outsourcing food and pharmaceuticals; doctors from the US and donations from asian countries.
- An Italian organization constructing a hospital in Australia with funding from an asian country.
- An Indian IT company launching its platform in a European country, getting architecture provided from Spain and code from Pakistan.
You may, at this point wonder – international projects are after all projects with similar goals. How does involvement of people from different demographics make it any different from the domestic projects?
For now, I would say that international projects require a specific set of tools and techniques that are not quite the same as the domestic projects.
Read on, to get insights on the international projects and their management.
“The global scale creates an environment of very rapid change. You will most likely have work completed as you are sleeping. The project manager needs to be aware of time zone differences, different holidays around the globe, vacations in different cultures and many other rapid changes on the project”Michael O’Connor, strategy and project management director at Medtronic and instructor of the Global and Cultural Competency course at CSS
Working Challenges for the Countries
Countries in the international projects can experience many differences while working together:
- Time Zone
- Accounting Standard
- Local practice
While running an international project, a project manager cannot ignore these aspects of differences for the working teams across the world.
Cultural differences, among these, stand out, as they are the most complex features to deal with in a compound working environment that involves multiple countries.
For example, there is a huge visible cultural polarity between India and America. If a project manager of the project involving these countries slurs over this contrast, he/she may invite considerable risk or failure.
An example of cultural differences in international projects is – countries that value long-term projects(like the Chinese) vs ones that value gig/contract jobs(like the Americans).
And if a project includes both of these countries, certain aspects need to be considered and catered to, on priority, while running the project.
“Culture is a collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one group or category of people from another”
Most of the people are so heavily seasoned with their own culture that they fail to empathise or even appreciate the flavours of the other cultures crossing their ways.
This leads to a foul work environment and finally may lead to an overall project failure.
After performing a careful study of several cultures, researchers have come up with some great tools and mechanisms to compare different countries based on cultural similarities and differences.
Of the many frameworks, ‘Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions’ stands as the most convenient and popular one. Let us study about it more in detail.
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
According to this framework, countries can be ranked based on the below six cultural dimensions. Each of these categories are then scored on the scale of 0 to 120 :
- Power Distance
- Individualism vs Collectivism
- Masculinity vs Femininity
- Uncertainty Avoidance
- Long vs Short term orientation
- Indulgence vs Restraint
Power distance refers to distribution of power among the various sections of the society.
A society with a high power distance index has a visible power gap between the senior stakeholders and rest of the members.
In such society, people usually accept a hierarchical order in which everyone has a place that needs no further justification.
A low index of power distance, on the other hand, means a flat curve for power distribution, and everybody has a say in the project.
Individualism vs Collectivism
A project with a high score on individualism means you need to focus on each individual’s aspirations and needs.
Whereas, blurring the individual demands, a high collectivism index signifies an emphasis on group goals and achievements.
In a culture of high individualism, it is important to engage each head into substantial work. In a culture focusing on the latter, you engage only with the key personnels who delegate the work to the rest of the team.
Masculinity vs Femininity
A country with high masculinity has most of the decision-making members that are male. Their decision is welcomed more, compared to the female heads.
In business context, ‘masculinity vs femininity’ is often considered synonymous to ‘tough vs tender’ cultures.
An example of a masculine country is Japan. On the other hand, Scandinavian countries like Norway and Sweden are considered highly feminine.
Uncertainty avoidance refers to making a background such that any kind of uncertainty in business can be avoided.
Rules are set up to avoid uncertainty. A culture with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance parameter refers to lesser acceptance of unorthodox norms.
They mostly believe in following the set rules and are less tolerant to changes.
A culture with a lesser uncertainty avoidance score is more flexible to changes and adapts to them if the business demands so.
Long vs Short Term Orientation
Some countries prefer long-term projects with long deadlines and partnership. Asian countries mostly fall under this category.
Short-term projects are favoured by countries like America and Morocco and they do value gig jobs and contract work contrary to their long-term counterparts.
Indulgence vs Restraint
This is a comparatively new one added to the existing Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. The extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses is related to this dimension.
A greater control means restraint and such culture follows strict social norms, whereas a lesser grip on people’s emotions and gratification of needs is indulgence.
You may at this point ask, all this is fine, but how are the cultural parameters related to international project management. Read on.
How can Cultural Dimensions Help in International Project Management
In the initial phase when you decide on the countries for an international project, cultural analysis of each country helps to choose the most cohesive combination.
Also, choosing any country becomes easier if you base your choice on the cultural score in a particular dimension.
For example, for a short-term project, if you approach China (that values long-term projects more), you may not succeed in getting a conversion of your proposal.
Also, if you are heading to start an international change project, choosing the countries with low uncertainty avoidance score would be wiser as they would be ready for changes.
A Comparison of Few Countries
Let us check out some countries and their cultural dimensions.
This will give a clearer picture of how comparisons are done while analysing the cultural front of the participating countries of a project.
As it is evident from the images, both China and France score high on power distance. While Denmark scores low.
So if you are dealing with the high scorers, you will find a strong sense of leadership and power among the top position holders in the hierarchy.
The US has a high level of individualism. If you are working with them , you need to be careful about treating each member with equal importance.
Denmark has a low degree of masculinity. This means females take a lead in the decision-making processes. Men have more responsibility at home and quality of life is great here.
Uncertainty avoidance level is high in France, which shows that the French people like to adhere to the rules and norms and are not very flexible to changes.
As stated before, China values long-term bonds and America is more into short-term engagements.
So choose your countries wisely, based on their score on long-term orientation and the project duration.
Making a Career in IPM
International Project Management involves the below –
Executing these items needs a basic IPM skill that can be learned through various courses. We will discuss this in a bit.
Also, there are multiple career options in the IPM field. A career in IPM depends on the candidate’s –
- Educational background
- Professional Experience
Some facts about International Project Management
|Median Salary (2019)*||$73,349 (for all project managers)|
|Key Skills||Excellent oral and written communication; organization; strong leadership; problem solving|
|Work Environment||Typically in-office with some travel involved to oversee field operations|
|Similar Occupations||Administrative coordinators; business managers; operations managers; marketing coordinators|
What do International Project Managers do?
An international project manager plans, organizes and leads international projects. An example can be with a new franchised shop outlet in a new country.
An international project manager is responsible to handle the in and out of the business while following the monetary and time constraints agreed upon in the agreement.
Additionally, risk analysis and cost estimation are the add-on responsibilities. Also, a great communication is the basic skill needed to do written and verbal communication with the teams and stakeholders.
The following figure shows the ideal brain of an international project manager. Notice the balance needed between the left and right brain.
The right hemisphere is mostly engaged in holistic thinking, creativity and soft skills. Left hemisphere, on the other hand, deals with logic, analytics and hard skills.
An international project manager exhibiting the correct balance between the usage of the two hemispheres of their brain, tend to be more successful.
Implementation of IPM
After identifying the cultural differences, you do the project implementation.
Since it is an international project, you need to put special efforts to handle the cultural differences, country law, finances, politics, language and timezone etc.
IPM has certain steps involved:
- Define the project
- Determine the project leaders
- Set up a hierarchy
- Define the project plan
- Execute the project
Since the project scope is wide and there are several stakeholders involved, a correct view of the project – objectives, roadmap, scope, cost, dependencies, challenges – is a prerequisite before diving into the real project.
As a next step, you determine the leadership positions needed to run the project smoothly at each point.
For each position you pick the best personnel that fit the responsibility. You set up a hierarchy within the management, where everyone does his specific set of jobs.
A well-documented project plan in place is a must to proceed with an effective execution of the project.
There are several certificate and degree programs available for IPM, but these are not very common. The most followed ones are the undergraduate and graduate level programs.
Students/professionals in the below fields can opt for IPM courses:
- Product development
The courses include the below topics on management:
- Global entrepreneurship
- Multinational marketing
- International supply chain management
- International negotiations
Students learn to pursue international business and management while utilizing the latest technology.
Click here to know about project management as a career move.
ASAPM – The American Society for the Advancement of Project Management – promotes the development of project management courses in organizations all over the world.
It provides a background to develop industry publications, recognition and certification.
There are several certifications available, based on the experience level of candidates. You can earn IPM certification as a project management associate.
Later with experience you graduate to the rank of project manager, senior project manager and gradually to a project director.
Click here to know about some of the best project management certifications.
International Project Management Day
Celebrated on the first Thursday in November, IPM day has been celebrated since 2004, to encourage the international-project based organisations with recognition events within their projects.
This is done to demonstrate appreciation for the achievements of project managers and their teams.
To Sum Up,
In this rapidly changing world, marketing yourself as a global citizen is a wise option to step ahead in your management career.
Increasing your market share to leverage global talents is possible by pursuing international project management courses.
These courses are available as under-graduate and graduate programs, and as online programs.
Handling an international project needs a special skill set that can be learned over time through experience and more, through project management courses.
The people in international projects come from different cultural backgrounds and you need to gauge each culture on the basis of parameters like power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance etc.
Based on these calculations, you get an idea of the coherent countries that go well together.
Implementation of IPM or international project management involves certain steps like defining the project objectives, setting up a leadership hierarchy in the project, planning and finally executing the project.
It is not mandatory to have a prior experience in domestic project management, but having one would add to your management skills. The best way is to take a course to learn about the nuances of international project management .
Remember, the key success factors in the field of management are – communication skills, proper use of software and general management techniques.
Learn these through the management courses and you are ready to fly into the future of management.