In the digital world, we use databases daily. If you come across this website using a search engine on the Internet, a database aids your search. You can use databases to power websites like Amazon, YouTube, Netflix, and Wikipedia. And also, banking applications, scientific research, and government records. In this blog, you will learn What is database? And what is database management system?

what is database management system

Lets’ discuss what is database management system in the following

What is a database?

A database is a structured grouping of information arranged and often kept electronically in a computer system. A database management system generally maintains a database (DBMS).

Thus, to simplify access to critical information, you can manage data in tables and index it.

Database administrators build a database so all users can access the data from a single tool.

In fact, the database’s primary function is to manage critical information by storing, retrieving, and managing data.

These days, the World Wide Web has many websites that use databases to manage their content. As an example, consider a bus to check seat availability. It serves as an example of a dynamic webpage utilizing a database.

What is data?

A collection of distinctive, consolidated pieces of information is called data. You can use it in many ways, including text, numbers, media, bytes, etc. And It keeps in electronic memory. The word “data” means a single piece of information.” and also, the plural word is datum. Data is information that transforms into a form for swift movement and processing in computing. You can swap out data.

What is database management system?

A database management system (DBMS) is just a computerized data-keeping system. Users of the system can carry out a variety of actions. such as managing the database structure itself or manipulating the data in the database.

The following tasks are possible with DBMS:

Data Definition: It creates, modifies, and removes definitions database that organizes the data.

Data Updating: This process involves adding, changing, and removing the data from the database.

Data Retrieval: This process is used to get data from a database that programs can use for various things.

User administration: It is used for user registration, user monitoring, data integrity and data security. Furthermore, for concurrency control, performance monitoring, and information recovery from unexpected failure-corrupted data.

What is database management system characteristics?

  • DBMS helps to store and administer the information. It uses a server-based digital repository.
  • It can give a rational and straightforward explanation of the data manipulation process.
  • DBMS has built-in backup and recovery mechanisms.
  • It has ACID characteristics that keep the data in a good state in the event of failure.
  • The intricate relationship between the data can be simplified.
  • It supports the processing and manipulation of data.
  • And also, it is employed to provide data security.
  • It can display the database from various angles depending on the user’s needs.

Database Management System Benefits

Reduces database redundancy: DBMS can manage data redundancy. So that it stores all the data in a single database file and stores that recorded data in the database.

Data sharing: A DBMS helps an organization’s authorized users to share data among several users.

Easily Maintenance: As the database system is centralized, it is easy to maintain.

Time savings: It reduces the necessity for maintenance and development time.

Backup: It has subsystems for backup to recover. Especially, back up data in case of hardware or software problems and restore the data as needed.

It suggests a variety of user interfaces. Same as graphical user interfaces and application program interfaces.

Database Management System Drawbacks

Cost of Hardware and Software: Running DBMS software necessitates a high-speed data processor and a lot of memory.

Size: Running them effectively takes up a lot of memory and storage space.

Complexity: The database system adds more requirements and complexity.

Failure significantly impacts databases. Since, in most organizations, all data is stored in a single database. Any data may be permanently lost if the database is damaged due to electrical negligence or corruption.

History of Databases

History of database
In 1960, Charles W. Bachman created the initial database software management system. It refers to the Integrated Database system at the time. IBM set out to make its application after realizing the importance of one that could access and extract data from databases with ease. They quickly built the IBM IMS after that (information management system). These two programs named the originators of modern database management systems.

The market swamp with general-use databases. And so, that needed more conventional capabilities as more businesses tried to follow suit. Bachman established the Database in the early 1970s. This standard eventually became the Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL). However, these systems were still complicated and managing them required extensive training.

Relational databases first became available in the 1980s. Without the need for database specialists, these technologies provided a much simpler system. In which a range of businesses could deploy. It quickly became accepted practice in the sector. SQL utilizes for database interaction in these earliest relational databases. The intricacy of SQL had the disadvantage of slow performance. Especially when databases needed to be scaled up.


Finally, in the early 2000s saw the most advanced database software technology. when relational databases were developed. To provide their products to users at this time, big web companies like Google and Yahoo needed great scalability and performance. The solution was to create distributed, NoSQL-based non-relational databases.


These databases are designed for high-performance data processing and enterprise-scale storage. Software-as-a-service (SaaS) or cloud-based database software has gained popularity due to cloud computing. Because the service provider often controls it, it enables more scalability to handle the enormous amounts of data. Thus, it is required by modern enterprises and frees up company resources.

Types of Databases

Databases need to be very good at doing what they intend to do.

It is due to several factors, including the fact that the volume of constantly changing or updated data. we are dealing with has made its dynamics less attractive. Because of the social value that each individual has placed on them, databases serve as the physical foundation for a client’s way of life.
The functionality that databases offer users largely depends on the design of the various types of databases. Data is a dynamic thing. Hence how storage changes , It is also why businesses create particular databases to suit their requirements.

  • Hierarchical databases
  • Network databases
  • Object-oriented databases
  • What is Relational database?
  • NoSQL databases

What is Hierarchical database?

Hierarchical Database

This database follows the evolution of data classification in ranks or levels. where data is classified based on a common linkage point, just like in any hierarchy. As a result, the rank of the commonality will be higher and the position of the two data entities will be lower.

Remember that despite their extreme differences, departments and administration belong to universities. These are components of the hierarchy. Another viewpoint suggests picturing the data arranged in parent-child relationships. That might resemble a tree when more data items add. The parent record is allowed to have numerous child records because they are connected to it by a field. The opposite, however, is not possible.

You should be aware that due to this structure, hierarchical databases are difficult to sell. Moreover, adding new data components necessitates a protracted traversal across the database.

What are Network databases?

what is database management system

In general, a network database is a hierarchical database with a small modification. The ability to link with various parent records grants to the child records. As a result, one can see a network or net of database files linked by several threads. Note that the Student, Faculty, and Resources components all have Departments and Clubs listed as their second parents.

Network databases are better suited to represent two-directional relationships. Because of their sophisticated foundation. Moreover, the use of a more straightforward database management language encourages conceptual simplicity. The drawback is that the structure is so complicated and structurally reliant that it is impossible to change.

What is an Object-oriented database?

This database model will be simple when compared to Object-Oriented Programming Paradigm. A database object that answers as an instance of the database model can be used to represent data. It is stored in a database. Calling and referencing the object are hence straightforward procedures. The workload on the database decreases as a result.

The objects in the preceding diagram connect via methods. the livesAt() method is used to find the Person’s address (represented by the Person Object). Also, these objects’ characteristics are the data components defined by the database. The Berkeley DB software library illustrates such an architecture. Because it employs the same conceptual framework. It provides quick and efficient responses to database queries from the embedded database.

What is relational database?

what is database management system

These databases and associated management systems are the most developed of production. Every information item in this database is related to every other information. It is because each data value has a distinct identity as a record in the database. This model tabulates all data. As a result, using a primary key, every row of data in the database connects to every other row. Similarly, every table uses a foreign key to connect it to another table.

Initially, Tables were first used to arrange data; since then, they have become trendy. They are, thus, frequently incorporated into Web-App interfaces to act as perfect repositories for user data. The simplicity of the language used to communicate with the database. And how straightforward it is to learn to make it even more intriguing.

Also, it is essential to be aware that scaling and navigating through data in relational databases is effortless.

What is a NoSQL database?

A database with a data storage and retrieval mechanism is known as NoSQL. The term initially stood for non-SQL or non-relational. Other than the tabular relations in relational databases, this data is modeled in numerous ways.
A NoSQL database has a more straightforward design, easier horizontal scaling to machine clusters. And also, more precise availability control. Because NoSQL databases use different data structures than relational databases do by default. some operations complete more quickly. The problem that a NoSQL database is supposed to solve determines whether it is appropriate. NoSQL databases’ data structures are occasionally more adaptable than relational databases’ tables.

What is schema in database?

The skeleton structure of a database schema is the logical picture of the entire database. It outlines the design of the data and the relationships that connect them. It outlines every restriction that imposes on the data.


A database schema identifies the relationships between the data. It includes a database description that can be illustrated using a schema diagram. Database designers create the schema to make the database more accessible for programmers to comprehend and use.

A database schema can be of two types:

Physical database schema: 

This schema deals with keeping data in storage, such as in files, indices, etc. It outlines the procedures for data storage in secondary storage.

The logical database schema: 

It outlines all the logical restrictions that are imposed on the stored data. Tables, views, and integrity restrictions are defined.

What is database software?

You can use Database software to build, change, and maintain database files and records. And also, to make, create, enter and reporting on files and records simpler. The software also handles Data storage, backup, reporting, multi-access control, and security.

DBMS is a popular database management system. It includes MySQL, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, FileMaker Pro, and Microsoft Access.

Database Examples

Examples of databases include:

Server Microsoft SQL

Microsoft created SQL Server. It is a relational database management system. SQL constructs it, which is the accepted query language for DMSs.

The Oracle Database

Oracle Database, created by Oracle Corporation, is built on a multi-model DBMS. It frequently utilizes to carry out online transactions.


A Relational Database Management System, MySQL is based on Structured Query Language (SQL). Data warehousing and e-commerce platforms use MySQL. As a web database management system, it utilizes it frequently.

The Relational Database Management System developed by IBM is called Db2. This software uses to analyze, store, and retrieve data efficiently.


PostgreSQL is a free-to-use open-source relational database management system. 

Languages for databases

Users can query databases and update using the formal language a DBMS provides. It effectively creates and maintains the database. Database languages include SQL, Oracle, dBase, Microsoft Access, FoxPro, and others. The four main types of database languages are DDL, DML, DCL, and TCL.

Thus, it creates files, tables, and data dictionaries within databases. It aids in defining data and its relationships to other data types.

Data Control Language (DCL): Regulates database and data access
Data Manipulation Language (DML): You can insert, retrieve, update, and delete data from the database. And also, it supports other fundamental data manipulation activities.
Transaction Control Language (TCL): It controls how the database is changed.

What is SQL Database?

  • Structured Query Language, or SQL,
  • You can access and manage databases by SQL.
  • ANSI and ISO recognized SQL as a standard query language for databases in 1986.

How effective is SQL?

  • SQL runs queries against databases.
  • From a database, SQL may obtain information.
  • You can add a record in a database using SQL.
  • SQL updates the database’s records
  • SQL can remove records from databases.
  • You can create new databases using SQL.
  • You can create procedures in a database by using SQL.
  • SQL can create views in a database.

SQL uses in Website

You will need the following to create a website that displays data from a database:

  • RDBMS database software (i.e., MS Access, SQL Server, MySQL)
  • the utilization of a server-side scripting language, such as PHP or ASP
  • you can utilize SQL to obtain the desired data
  • you can customize the page using HTML and CSS

Most frequently, a database has one or more tables. We use a name to identify each table (e.g., “Customers” or “Orders”)data-filled records (rows) found in tables.

SQL Statements

We use SQL statements for the majority of database-related operations.

The SQL query that comes next selects every record in the “students” table:

select * from students;

SQL Syntax

SQL is not case-sensitive. In the above statement, we can write “select” as “SELECT.”

Each SQL statement terminates with a semicolon. 

Thus, the execution of several SQL statements in a single request by using semicolon. The semicolon is the accepted method of separating each SQL statement.


Some of the most significant SQL commands

  • SELECT – extracts data from a database
  • UPDATE – updates data in a database
  • DELETE – deletes data from a database
  • INSERT INTO – It inserts new data into a database table
  • CREATE DATABASE – creates a new database
  • ALTER DATABASE – modifies a database
  • CREATE TABLE – creates a new table
  • ALTER TABLE – modifies a table
  • DROP TABLE – deletes a table
  • DROP INDEX – deletes an index

The SQL SELECT Statement

SELECT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename;

The field names of the table you want to select data from are shown below as col1, col2,… Use the following syntax to choose all of the table’s accessible fields:

SELECT * FROM tablename;


SELECT DISTINCT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename;

Use the SELECT DISTINCT command only to return distinct (different) data.

A column in a table may have duplicate values. Thus there are instances when you want to list the unique values.

The SQL WHERE Clause

" SELECT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename WHERE condition; "

The WHERE keyword filters the records.

It extracts records that meet a specific requirement exclusively.

The SQL AND, OR, and NOT Operators

  • The AND operator shows a record if you get true for all the conditions separated by AND.
  • OR operator shows a record if you get TRUE for any of the conditions separated by OR
  • The NOT operator shows a record if you get none of the condition(s) TRUE.
AND syntax
" SELECT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename WHERE condition1 AND condition2 AND condition3 ...; "
OR syntax
" SELECT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename WHERE condition1 OR condition2 OR condition3 ...; "
NOT syntax
" SELECT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename WHERE NOT condition; "

The SQL ORDER BY Keyword

You can sort the result records in either ascending or descending order using the ORDER BY keyword.

You can sort records by using the ORDER BY keyword in ascending order. And also, you can sort the records in descending order by using the DESC keyword.

" SELECT col1, col2, ... FROM tablename ORDER BY col1, col2, ... ASC|DESC; " 


We can insert records into the table using INSERT INTO statement.

" INSERT INTO tablename (col1, col2, col3, ...) VALUES (value1, value2, value3, ...); "

The SQL UPDATE Statement

We can change the existing record in the table using the UPDATE statement.


" UPDATE tablename SET col1 = value1, col2 = value2, ... WHERE condition; " 


The SQL DELETE Statement

We can delete existing records in the table by DELETE statement.

" DELETE FROM tablename WHERE condition; "

Delete All Records

We can delete all rows in the table by the following statement.

" DELETE FROM table_name; "

Henry Harvin provides SQL Courses by professionals. Enroll now to learn more about SQL

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Career Options in The Database Management System

  1. Database manager
  2. Data analyst
  3. Data scientist
  4. Information security analyst
  5. Database administrator
  6. Software engineer

Recommended Reads

  1. What is SQL? Learn SQL Basics, SQL Full Form, and How to Use
  2. Top 50 SQL Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced & Freshers
  3. What is Backend Development? Skills, Salary, Roles & More


  1. A blog that provides useful and interesting content for those who are looking to learn about SQL databases. There are a lot of articles that can help you learn about the database system in a quick and easy way.

  2. Vijay Bhardwaj Reply

    Best SQL Database Learning Blog is an online blog that is dedicated to all things SQL. They offer a variety of tutorials and articles for beginners and experienced users.

  3. Madhavi Sharma Reply

    Learning in Databases, a blog dedicated to databases and data science, publishes articles about databases.

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