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 The biotechnology industry is rapidly expanding. It uses living organisms, cells, and biological systems to create new solutions in fields like healthcare, agriculture, and environmental conservation. So, when preparing for a biotechnology job interview, it’s natural to have concerns, but getting ready is a crucial step toward securing the opportunity. Indeed, let’s reinforce your knowledge with the following biotechnology interview questions.

Biotechnology interview question


1. Define Biotechnology. What is the meaning of old and new biotechnologies?

Indeed, biotechnology is a wide area of science and innovation that includes utilizing living organisms or their systems to develop products or processes for various applications. Also, it consolidates science, genetics, biochemistry, and other related disciplines to create natural cycles and make valuable developments.

2. What made you choose Biotechnology as your career option?

To emphasize, my desire to contribute to advancements in healthcare and agriculture, with an interest in cutting-edge technologies like genetic engineering and genome editing. Also, having a fascination with the potential of biotechnology to address pressing global challenges, such as food security and environmental sustainability. 

3. What are the different types of biotechnology types you know about

There are several different types of biotechnology, each focusing on specific applications and techniques. So, some of the major types of biotechnology include Medical Biotechnology, Agricultural Biotechnology, Industrial Biotechnology, Environment Biotechnology, Marine Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Nanobiotechnology, Food Biotechnology etc.

4. How do you stay updated with the biotechnology industry?

In order to stay updated with the recent advances in Biotechnology one can follow reputable news outlets and websites. Also, they can subscribe to industry-specific journals and publications. Participation in conferences, webinars, and seminars related to biotechnology is helpful. 

5. Describe your experience of adapting to unexpected results in Biotechnology Industry.

In case of any unexpected results, the first thing to do will be verification and repetition of tests. By closely analyzing the method engaged and identification of any errors ignored need to be considered. In fact, consulting with experts and colleagues will help to take a different approach. 

6. What is the future of bioinformatics in India?

The future of bioinformatics in India holds significant potential for growth and development. Also, the growing biotechnology sector, thriving academic and research institutions, healthcare and pharms industry, and international collaborations are all potential aspects of the future of bioinformatics.

7.  How can you differentiate between standard, defined, and standardized serum?

Basically, standard serum refers to a sample with known characteristics used as a comparison in laboratory tests. The defined serum has its composition precisely known and is free from undefined components. Whereas, the standardized serum is adjusted to ensure consistent performance and results in experiments, ensuring reproducibility and reliability.

8. Define gene cloning.

In particular, gene cloning is the process of making identical copies of a specific gene using recombinant DNA technology.

9. What is PCR?

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a molecular technique used to amplify and make multiple copies of DNA segments.

10. What are the features of a good vector?

Basically, a good vector should have features like easy manipulation, high cloning capacity, selectable markers, and compatibility with host cells for efficient gene transfer and expression.

11. What is serum-free media in biotechnology?

Serum-free media is a cell culture medium that does not contain any animal-derived serum. Also, it provides essential nutrients and growth factors for cell growth, ensuring a controlled environment without the variability of serum-based media.

12. What is a monoclonal antibody?

A monoclonal antibody is a type of antibody produced by identical immune cells derived from a single parent cell. It specifically targets a single antigen and has applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

13. Mice are the most suitable animal for transgenic production. Why?

Mice are considered the most suitable animals for transgenic production due to their relatively short generation time, well-established genetic background, and ability to produce large numbers of offspring. 

14. What is the background of the tissue culture technique in Biotechnology?

The tissue culture technique originated in the early 20th century, with the successful cultivation of plant tissues and cells in vitro. Later, it was adapted for animal cells, leading to significant advances in biology, biotechnology, and medicine. 

 15.  Can you differentiate between transfection and transduction?

Transfection is the direct introduction of foreign DNA into eukaryotic cells using chemical or physical methods. In fact, transduction involves the transfer of genetic material through viral vectors, where viruses deliver foreign DNA into the host cell’s genome.

16. What are the bacteria that we can consume?

Some bacteria that are safe for consumption include certain probiotic strains like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Actually, they are commonly found in yogurt and fermented foods.

17. How can you define Bio-ethics?

Bioethics is the study of ethical issues and dilemmas arising from advances in biology, medicine, and biotechnology. Basically,it addresses moral considerations related to human life, health, research, and the environment.

18. What is drug targeting?

Drug targeting is a strategy to deliver medications selectively to specific cells, tissues, or organs in the body while minimizing their effects on non-targeted areas. It aims to enhance the drug’s efficacy, reduce side effects, and improve treatment outcomes.

19. How can you say that biotechnology has generated a variety of novel therapeutic agents?

Biotechnology has generated a variety of novel therapeutic agents through advances in genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, and biopharmaceutical production. Also, these innovations have led to the development of biologics, gene therapies, monoclonal antibodies, and personalized medicines.

20. Tell us what you know about cytokines.

Cytokines are small proteins that play crucial roles in cell signaling and communication within the immune system. Basically, they regulate immune responses, inflammation, cell growth, and differentiation, acting as key mediators in various physiological and pathological processes in the body.

21 What is the difference between type I and type II hypersensitivity?

Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate allergic reaction involving IgE antibodies and the release of histamine, causing rapid inflammation and symptoms like hives and anaphylaxis. Type II hypersensitivity is an antibody-mediated reaction where antibodies target specific cells or tissues, leading to cell destruction or dysfunction, such as in autoimmune diseases and certain drug reactions.

22. What are autoimmune diseases, name them.

Autoimmune diseases are conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages the body’s own tissues. For example, it include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

23. Ebola virus causes which disease?

The Ebola virus causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is a severe and often fatal illness. Indeed, it is characterized by fever, bleeding, and organ failure.

24. How did Covid-19 get its name?

The name “COVID-19” is an abbreviation for “Coronavirus Disease 2019.” Soon, it was given by the World Health Organization (WHO) to identify the novel coronavirus disease that emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.

25. Name some variants of coronavirus.

Some notable variants of coronavirus for example include Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). It is still expanding though.

26. What is apoptosis?

In reality, apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that eliminates damaged, infected, or unnecessary cells to maintain tissue homeostasis. Also, it prevent the spread of harmful agents.

27. Where is immunofluorescence applicable in the industry?

As a matter of fact, immunofluorescence is applicable in the industry for various purposes, such as antibody detection in diagnostics, protein localization in research, and identifying specific molecules in pharmaceutical development, contributing to advancements in medicine and biotechnology.

28. How does a vaccine act?

Basically, vaccine stimulates the immune system by introducing a harmless version of a pathogen or its components. Moreover, it triggers an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and memory cells that protect against future infections by the actual pathogen.

29. What is an immunoblotting technique?

Immunoblotting, also known as Western blotting, is a laboratory technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample. Also, it involves electrophoretically separating proteins, transferring them to a membrane, and using antibodies to detect the target protein of interest.

30. What is the assay method for Ig in serum?

Actually, the assay method for Ig (immunoglobulin) in serum is typically performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or nephelometry. ELISA uses antibodies to detect specific Ig levels, while nephelometry measures the light scattering of Ig-antibody complexes, quantifying the concentration in the sample.

31. What is the difference between allograft and isograft in biotechnology ?

Basically, allograft is a transplant between genetically different individuals of the same species, requiring immunosuppression. Whereas, Isograft is a transplant between genetically identical individuals (e.g., identical twins) that does not require immunosuppression due to genetic similarity.

32. What is the source of monoclonal antibodies?

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by identical immune cells derived from a single parent cell, known as hybridoma cells. Basically , it is generated by fusing specific antibody-producing B cells with immortalized myeloma cells.

33. What benefits one may get from genome sequencing projects in biotechnology?

Genome sequencing projects offer various benefits, including insights into genetic variation, disease susceptibility, and personalized medicine. In fact, they aid in understanding complex diseases, drug development, agricultural improvements, and advancements in healthcare, biotechnology, and scientific knowledge.

34. Explain the concept of “gene editing” and its potential benefits in biotechnology.

Of course, gene editing, is a cutting-edge technology, involves altering an organism’s DNA to modify or eliminate specific genes. Actually ,this revolutionary approach holds promise for curing genetic diseases, enhancing agricultural productivity. also it help in tackling pressing environmental issues.

35. How can biotechnology contribute to sustainable agriculture?

In fact, biotechnology can enhance crop resilience, reduce the need for chemical inputs. Eventually, it enable the development of drought-resistant or disease-resistant crops.

Biotechnology Interview Questions


In brief, through your thoughtful responses, you offer invaluable insights into the realm of biotechnology. Also, your expertise and unique perspective play a substantial role in illuminating the current trends and potential future directions within the industry.
Moreover, your active participation in the biotechnology interview questions session enables employers to gauge your credentials. Hence, engaging in this biotechnology Q&A session represents a crucial and commendable effort.
Wishing you the best of luck!

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