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DevOps…… why it’s so famous?

Let’s all think for a moment that without DevOps, there wouldn’t be the next-gen in this techno world. We are so amazed by this concept when we think that, how applications work and how software is made to support such applications, their processes, integrations, and continuously monitoring such applications.

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Elaborate, Dev and Ops – Software Development and IT Operations.

Combining these two – it’s referred to as the practice of developing programing software involving IT applications by reducing the time-bound of the programs and applications by automating the flow of work and revising quality assurance for positive rapid feedback.

We need DevOps as they reduce time on the process of developing programming software and applications, ensure that it is adaptable to the current market changes, and focus on enhancing good results and gradual growth on the business too.

I feel like it’s best to understand what DevOps means and how do they work and function, by acknowledging its importance and impact on the software systems and applications we use.

Becoming a DevOps expert is like you got to be a Surgeon, who can do surgeries to ensure that you can get a positive result from a surgery done.

Students and professionals must understand and know the importance of DevOps by prepping for job roles in this field. Let us take a note of important and general interview questions being asked, updated in 2021. Remember, the questions being noted below, may not be in general circumstance but they can be applied to boost your confidence of facing interviews and be a DevOps expert by knowing what are the questions being asked.

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Dear Students cum Professionals, we rely upon you to bring such changes in today’s world and hope you get above the level of potential to a confident doc, by making you a DevOps expert.

Take the below points into consideration, before you take an interview.

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ASKED IN DEVOPS 

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1. What is DevOps?

Combining the tasks, practices, and tools in an organization increases the capacity to deliver applications in programming software for the business need within a short period.

2. What are the tools in DevOps?

The top 10 tools being used in DevOps are noted below,

  • Git
  • Gradle
  • Selenium
  • Jenkins
  • Puppet
  • Chef
  • Dockers
  • Kubernetes
  • Ansible
  • eG Enterprises   

3. How are DevOps related to Agile and DataOps?

                    DevOps                                  Agile
Focus on collaboration, customer feedback, small and rapid releasesFocus on bringing together development and operations team together
Enhances sustained changesEnhances sustained testing and delivery
Duration is managed through sprints, so less than a month for each sprintRequires deadlines for large delivery. Make an ideal code for continuous production
Feedback comes from the customerFeedback comes from internal team members
Target set – software developmentTarget setting – back-to-back business solutions and immediate delivery
DevOps VS Agile
  DevOpsDataOps
Focuses on developing quality software by reducing the processProduction of high-quality data for fast and worthy BI
Delivering automated version and configuring serversDelivers automated data acquiring, modeling, integrate and categorizing high and quality data
Integrates development and operation teams for perfect and immediate deliveryConnects business leads, IT development, and business analytics teams for quick data process
DevOps VS DataOps

4. What are the phases in DevOps?

DevOps life cycle or phases involve,

  • Continuous Development
  • Continuous Integration
  • Continuous Testing
  • Continuous Monitoring
  • Continuous Feedback
  • Continuous Deployment
  • Continuous Operations

5. Why do we require DevOps?

It’s an integrated and organized software development and operations practice to deliver the actions or applications at a faster pace. DevOps brings both the Development team and the operations team, to collab and work on software development.

6. Which apps in today’s day-use DevOps?

  • Amazon
  • Netflix
  • Target
  • Walmart
  • Nordstrom
  • Facebook
  • Etsy
  • Adobe
  • Sony Pictures Entertainment
  • Fidelity Worldwide Investment

7. How do we deploy codes generated in application software?

When a company deploys a code created or the changed code several times, it may release several codes or feature changes in a day. Such features or codes are referred to as containers or container technologies like Dockers and Kubernetes, with the help enable continuous deployment by maintaining the stability of the code features within several deployment sections and environments.

8. Why do industries require automation for flexible work processes?

Automation can erase performance drawbacks, lesser down the communication issues, between operations and development and QA teams.

9. What a DevOps expert can do?

A DevOps expert can understand the market changes and challenges, adapt to its changes and bring out the development and operations team together to create a software application. Usually, DevOps experts are DevOps engineers who have thorough knowledge about the programming codes.

10. What can DevOps solve?

  • Understanding the customer needs and requirements, by eliminating low-value tasks enhances more innovation, and flexibility by taking technology to the next level.
  • Reduces the period of each process by continuous monitoring of testing and deployment, fixing bugs issues by providing faster feedback to customers.
  • DevOps can steady time to the current market conditions, to adapt in the future. DevOps experts look into such thoughts and act accordingly.
  • DevOps experts are good in team communication and collaboration of enhancing improvements because of continuous deployments, faster releases, and get immediate updates, and increasing innovations, so when there any sort of problems arise they can confidently solve at a faster pace.

11. How does DevOps exist?

A revolutionary concept, which came out by these two pioneers Andrew Clay and Patrick Debois after a long discussion. Considering the faults in agile, they came up with the idea of bringing out DevOps, which is a positive step towards cultural change. These two, being the DevOps experts, implemented in such a way that the engineers of future need not wait for processor testing, noting that three teams, viz., development team to concentrate on the development of the concerned process, admins can note down the scripts and QA engineers can get the issues solved other than being busy bees in testing.

So, yes this is a time-saving approach towards better deployment as these are automated.

12. How can you differentiate waterfall development from DevOps?

Yes, the basic part of this concept is that both of them are different in terms of the culture of software development. The one difference noted is that waterfall development or linear – sequential life cycle model, the phases are separate or isolated and each phase starts only when the previous phase is complete, whereas, DevOps divide each stage the works collaboratively, hence it integrates the work for positive deployment.

13. What challenges does DevOps face?

Common challenges, DevOps face are below,

  • Understanding the major roles and responsibilities is tough in Devs and Ops, what Devs teams need to do and what Ops teams need to do is a major problem
  • Continuous Integration, to make teams work in process and collaboratively is still challenging, as to which tool should be integrated is a question
  • Learning to know which process is getting positive workflow and not working to be concerned. The teams need to take up necessary notes on which processes are resistant to change, avoid lags in business and organization
  • Different toolkits for the Devs team and Ops team should be taken note of as they are the most significant part of work processes
  • Adapting new tools to the organization is mandated only when those tools adjust to the current organizational environment and the software culture of that organization. This can happen when we can train the current staff and check the security of new tools
  • Adaptability to the DevOps culture means to change to DevOps culture is an important part of any IT industry. The teams should make an environment for the staff to make them understand the significance of DevOps implementation in an IT industry that can help us in several ways, brings positive results. This is somewhat challenging as making them understand is the part if they are coordinated to the action.

14. What skills does a DevOps expert require to be an expert?

To become a DevOps expert, list out the below:

  • Fundamentals of Linux and Python language
  • DevOps tools and technologies knowledge such as source code management, CI, CD, CT, CM, containerization, and configuration management
  • Acknowledging the practices of Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery
  • Learning Infrastructure delivery as a code for command prompt
  • Abstract of DevOps
  • Essential soft skills to work in a DevOps environment

15. How DevOps is helping in RDM?

DevOps is the most efficient use for Remote Device Management (RDM) as they can make the vision of IoT because it supports bulk operations on many devices simultaneously.

16. What are the DevOps tools used in deployment?

Top DevOps Tools used:

  • Bamboo
  • Teamcity
  • AWS Code Deploy
  • Octopus Deploy
  • ElectricFlow
  • PDQ Deploy
  • Ansible tower
  • Chef
  • Codeship
  • AppVeyor
  • CircleCI
  • Travis CI
  • Distelli
  • Jenkins
  • Codenvy
  • Deploybot
  • UrbanCode Deploy
  • Buildbot
  • GoCD
  • Microsoft Team Foundation Server
  • Automic
  • RapidDeploy
  • Juju
  • Rancher
  • Drone.io

17. Describe the role of integrating cloud along with DevOps?

The majority of the cloud service providers even provide the DevOps tools as an in-built service like code pipeline, code build, and code play within AWS which makes the process of DevOps even faster.

18. Do you think continuous monitoring is critical in implementing DevOps successfully? If so, can you please explain?

In any of the tools of SDLC, monitoring plays a pivotal role in making the tool effective in reducing manual errors, efforts, and improved accuracy. Each of the applications implemented with DevOps also needs to be continuously monitored to observe a finer level of metrics related to application performance. Real-time monitoring to obtain the functional wise metrics from the application will also aid to put on that information onto dashboards, which leads to generating any required alarms.

19. Is it feasible to have continuous deployment in DevOps practically?

Sure. If a greater amount of agility is involved in every phase of build and deployment, we will be in a position to observe continuous deployment in DevOps.

20. What are the major phases of DevOps?

  • Getting Infrastructure as code.
  • Looking for Continuous deployment.
  • Bringing Automation.
  • Constant Monitoring.
  • Ensuring Security.

21. In what way is QA, required for Continuous Delivery?

They speed up deployment, which is cheaper by doing the process continuously, also it’ll be much faster.

22. What is Continuous Delivery in DevOps?

A process where small parts of software or updates are delivered to production, to release the said, at any pace of time.

23. Is DevOps a good career option?

Yes, also it’s a promising career option to steady growth and a good experience in gaining knowledge in software developments and upgrades on it.

24. What is the pay scale of a DevOps engineer?

The average pay for a DevOps engineer in India is ₹6,74,202/- per year which includes bonuses and profit sharing. Also, it may vary on the organization’s growth and business stability.

25. What do you mean by Configuration Management?

It refers to the design of a software process in an organized way, by automating, monitoring, and managing the tedious tasks in different platforms.

26. Why do we require Configuration Management in DevOps?

There are complex software systems, depending upon the scale and size of the complexity. For this reason, to organize and design by, building strong systems and tools for ease of engineers to monitor the software systems process configuring them is a must in DevOps.

27. Which are the important KPIs in DevOps?

Top KPIs of DevOps include:

  • Asset Management
  • Monitoring
  • Continuous Integration/ Continuous Deployment
  • Continuous Security

28. State the key differences between Continuous Delivery and Continuous Deployment?

A simple difference is that Continuous Delivery aims at building, testing, developing the software codes in short series with dependence on automation whereas, Continuous Deployment releases those software codes to the production phase without human intervention.

29. How to tackle merge conflicts in Git?

To reduce the merge conflicts in Git, follow the below:

  • Open the conflicted file and make required changes
  • After editing, use Git add a command to place the new merged content
  • The last step, create a new commit with Git commit command
  • Git will then, make a new merge commit to approving the merge

30. List out the Git commands.

Let’s take a note of Git commands:

  • Git clone

Create a copy of the server version of the artifacts within the local workspace.

  • Git fetch

Get updates from the main server including unique code names and changes.

  • Git checkout

Switching the branch or unique code changes from where it’s currently working.

  • Git init

To start a new empty repository or restart an existing one.

  • Git commit

Any changes are done locally, you can always save them by using this Git command.

  • Git push

Send the locally carried changes to the remote line.

  • Git diff

To observe the untracked changes in the branch.

  • Git pull

In the current local independent line, the command shall get all the changes from the remote central location and merge any remote changes.

  • Git add

Use to track changed files, also can track the independent files.

  • Git branch

List out the lines in the repository.

31. When should we use ‘Git rebase’ instead of ‘Git merge’?

  • Use merge, if you need a grouped history altogether clearly for the set of saved files in a branch
  • Use rebase, to keep a straight and proper history of saved files.
  • Don’t use rebase on a public or shared branch of files.

32. How is it possible to move or copy Jenkins from one server to another?

Note the below steps:

  • Install a new Jenkins object programming in the new server.
  • Note yourself that the old and the new Jenkins objects are stopped.
  • Archive all the content of the JENKINS_HOME of the old one.
  • Extract the archived one to the new Jenkins directory – JENKINS_HOME directory.
  • Start the new Jenkins in the new server.
  • Don’t forget to make changes to documentation or links of new Jenkins.
  • Don’t forget to change the owner of the new Jenkins object program.

33. What are the technical challenges with selenium?

Common technical challenges with selenium:

  • Doesn’t support windows applications except for web-based applications.
  • Cannot test on mobile operating systems.
  • Cannot generate a good working report.
  • Too difficult to handle or manage dynamic web elements in a normal manner.
  • Some of the web pages, being user-specific the runtime of selenium script may not be able to identify the elements of the web page.
  • Windows-based pop-ups are not beyond the control of selenium.
  • Captcha is handled in limits in selenium, also if we use tools other than selenium, we probably won’t be able to achieve 100% results.

34. Differentiate between driver.close() and driver.quit().

The key differences about driver.close() and driver.quit()

                    driver.close()                     driver.quit()
Closes the current browser which is in focus or currently running through a command.Closes all the browser-related tabs, pop-ups, windows so that we need not interact through commands.
This can be done when we’re having multiple tabs in browser windows.In general, it is the last automated script.
driver.close() VS driver.quit()
REPEAT AFTER EACH PROCESS, THIS CAN SATISFY OUR CUSTOMERS

35. What is Ansible?

It is an IT Automation engine, and the most required automation tool for coordination of DevOps practices, and to keep in an organized manner for the deployment of applications, and also for many IT processes.

36. What is the importance of the agile process in DevOps implementation?

Significance of implementation of DevOps through Agile process:

  • Well-organized release process in the workflow and improvises product offerings.
  • Allows for better cooperation.
  • Adds more value and fewer risks during the time of release.
  • Fewer bugs and immediate bug fixation.
  • Visibility is increased.
  • More satisfied customers as the products are of good quality.

37. What is the need for Dockers in DevOps?

Dockers in DevOps are used to create, deploy and run the applications in the form of containers. Using Dockers, developers can create all parts of containers and store them like in libraries or any other dependants and then ship them out as in a single package.

38. Mention the scripting tools used in DevOps.

Scripting languages for DevOps professionals:

  • Python
  • Bash
  • Go Language
  • Ruby
  • Groovy
  • Perl
  • Microsoft PowerShell
  • JAVAScript
  • Terraform
  • Ansible

39. Which are the cloud computing platforms in DevOps?

Amazon Web Services

  • AWS Code Build
  • AWS Code Pipeline
  • AWS Code Deploy

Google Cloud Platform (GCP)

  • GCP Deployment Manager
  • GCP Cloud Console

Microsoft Azure

  • Azure App Service
  • Azure DevTest Labs
  • Azure Stack

40. What are the factors followed for DevOps success?

Key success factors for DevOps:

  • Use the DevOps model by bringing together development and operations together for promoting a good and organized productive work environment.
  • Bring out the cultural environment in an organization rather than concentrating on tools only for purpose of implementation, such as maintaining the stable environment within the human resource, governance, holding meetings about the process to nurture the good business.
  • Creating mutual co-operation and good coordination between teams is a must. Giving chances to share thoughts about the process and monitor each workflow by communicating between teams, follow-ups of each process and work altogether as a whole team towards the growth of the business.
  • Learn the sequence of each DevOps tool being used during the process, because it’s not that easy being implemented for an even productive environment. So it’s important to understand the awareness of usage of DevOps in an organization.
  • Break the monotony of giving out orders and make each staff work based on the responsibilities assigned to them. It’s not only necessary to just tell them what to do, rather give them options and a place to create an optimistic environment to be open to opinions.
  • Coordinate between teams to take challenges and make a way to solve them. There should be that level of a blend of thoughtful teams, as operations teams usually are the hard-working ones as much as developers too. But is even important for the support teams to support them throughout the process, to build a good environment between members.
  • Each process such as coding, integrating, deployment, quality phases has to be reviewed and check the performance by setting up KPIs to monitor the time efficiency of each level of the project based on the priority.

41. What is Automation testing in DevOps?

After codes, created and testing is done on a timely basis and proves their accuracy, the QA teams and production owners create automatic user interface tests for checking the end-user experience quickly and with a high range of quality.

42. Why did automation require in the implementation of DevOps?

Automation, uplifts speed, increases stability, gains accuracy, becomes genuine, and increases the number of deliveries by summarizing up the right way of monitoring, organizing, designing, and deployment.

43. What are the pros of Automation?

Pros of Automation:

  • Operating cost is low due to low heat on the devices, which also saves energy and the cost of labor.
  • Safeguards the personnel from dangerous tasks which is not handled by human beings alone.
  • Keeps on the process on the go, thereby improving time management.
  • The increase in output, good production flow, and low operation costs lead to high ROI.
  • It lowers the production cycle and improves the quality of the output, thereby competence can increase in the global markets also.
  • Production can be increased, by they are done 24/7. So, several new products can be introduced for production without disturbing the existed ones.
  • Uniformity in production and quality improvements is increased in the process which is better than human working nature.
  • By smooth-flow of the use of equipment and process, scrap is being reduced and uses less energy by lowering the environmental risks which can save money too.
  • Optimal planning can make margins and goals to achieve
  • Integrating the production leads to good productivity and gains good output on hardware, software, and controls.

44. What is the impact of QA testing in DevOps?

QA testing acts as a bridge between the developers and operations by conducting several tests in each process or phase before delivering the codes to the codebase. They test in each phase actively the fix the code when required in the process.

45. State the lifecycle of DevOps.

Stage of DevOps lifecycle:

  • Plan: make a vision to develop an application or a feature.
  • Code: as per the client’s need, code the application.
  • Build: by merging several codes created for an application build as per the client’s vision.
  • Test: referred to as the heart of the process, once the code is built test for quality and user interface.
  • Release: once testing is done and approved, release to come live.
  • Deploy: bring into action by releasing them to the cloud by performing well and functioning accurately without affecting high traffic websites.
  • Operate: perform the operation code in action
  • Monitor: check and follow up continuously on the application as per the client’s requirement without lowering the performance in it.

46. What is the role of QA in DevOps?

The responsibility of a QA tester is to test the application or software programs by using different testing tools and techniques, also they fix the bugs and codes if any issues are raised.

47. State the strategies in DevOps testing.

  • Automatic testing in all phases of DevOps testing prove to make fewer mistakes, doesn’t forget or get tired. Therefore, automation helps us to run the process without time lag and gain productivity.
  • Quality tests are always best to do so when you require the end-user experiences, be it an application or a software program. So, therefore, QA testing done benefits the internal team and product owners to decide to release to the production environment or not.
  • When cases become difficult to even during automation testing, pair testing similar to pair programming can be worth bringing together two teams that are developers and operators in the position to note down the issues while the program keeps on automation testing. Manual testing paired with automation testing can get us to know how the program can be analyzed, and be solved.

48. Which are the best Continuous Testing software tools?

Top Continuous Testing software tools are noted:

  • Katalon Studio
  • Selenium
  • Appium
  • Eggplant
  • Watir
  • Tosca
  • Testsigma
  • Rational Function Tester
  • Unified Function Tester
  • TestComplete

49. Mention the best open-source DevOps tools.

  • Ansible
  • Chef
  • Dockers
  • ELK Stack
  • Git
  • Jenkins
  • Nagios
  • Puppet Enterprise
  • Selenium
  • Splunk

50. State the pre-requisites to learn DevOps.

  • Know coding and languages like JAVA, Python.
  • Know about Linux and its commands.
  • Knowledge of automation and its process.
  • Aware of different OS.
  • It’s better to know about AWS or azure tools, which could be an added advantage.
  • Effective communication skills and analytical knowledge is required.

51. How to install and configure Git?

To install Git:

  • Visit Git official website and download the Git installer. Download 2.23.0 for windows.
  • Select yes for the installation process.
  • Default components are automatically selected. Then click next to continue.
  • Git line commands are selected automatically, click next to continue.
  • Default transport backend options are made. Click next to continue.
  • Select the required line ending option. Click next to continue.
  • Select preferred terminal emulator, then Click next to continue.
  • The last step which shows other features like system caching, credentials, and the symbolic link, Click next
  • Then the files are extracted.
  • Finally, Git is installed, you can either use Git Bash or Git Gui.

52. Differentiate between traditional Configuration Management and DevOps Configuration Management.

A key difference between traditional configuration management and DevOps configuration management is that in the traditional case, the teams were formal and used to manage various environments through documentation and these documents were recorded by the team members and the manager used to handle or manage these recorded documents of version systems and control these documents, whereas, DevOps CM are fully automated and the configurations are made through codes and scripts in such a way to be accessible for user experience.

53. What do you mean by configuration drift?

Configuration drift refers to an environment where a group of servers or virtual machines running in a single server become increasingly different in time due to certain updates or manual changes on each node.

54. Which are the different components of selenium?

  • Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) – allows to record, edit and debug functional tests such as chrome extension or Firefox add-on.
  • Selenium RC (Remote Control) – server, written in JAVA scripts to accept the browser command via HTTP.
  • Selenium Web Driver – accepts commands of the user and sends them to the browser.
  • Selenium GRID – allows tests to use web browser object running on remote machines.

55. What does AWS serve in DevOps?

Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide more authentically built, and more speedily flexible services for companies for releasing products using AWS and DevOps practices. These manage the software environment, deploy application codes, and automate software releases, monitor processes and quality of the application.

56. Mention key differences between centralized and distributed version control systems (VCS).

                  Centralized VCS                                             Distributed VCS
Stores the history of changes on a central server so that when everyone requires the latest version.Stores only the complete work history, so that everyone can maintain a local copy.
Anyone can use this version to make changes to the latest version.Not necessary to make any changes online or add any revisions to the work.
Everyone sharing the server shares the work with everyone.There isn’t a central server, so the members can sync with each other for the work.
Centralized VCS VS Distributed VCS

57. What does the term ‘Shift leave’ refer to in DevOps?

‘Shift left’ in DevOps refers to approving the application testing at the earlier stage, before the DevOps process cycle.

58. State full form of CAMS.

CAMS – Culture, Automation, Measurement, and Sharing.

59. What is Version Control Systems (VCS)?

Version Control Systems (VCS) – it refers to making changes in files, doing backups, and maintaining the history of files without being deleted or running out of the process.

60. How does VCS serve in DevOps?

VCS plays a successful role in DevOps, they keep track of the bugs which provides many problems while coding for the engineers. In such cases, they act as speed monitors and track in keen insight and note where the process been gone wrong. Similarly, in another case working on the changes simultaneously might also become difficult as any new code-created programmers might not know about the new bugs created resulting in errors. Therefore, in that case, VCS ensures that one engineer creates changes isn’t impacted on the other at the same time, which means integrating the work.

61. State the principles of DevOps.

Principle 1 – Customer-oriented actions.

Principle 2 – Building products for customer requirements.

Principle 3 – Capable of taking up responsibility till the end, until customers are satisfied.

Principle 4 – Fully responsible teams, balanced set of skills and experience.

Principle 5 – Continuous Improvement by optimizing cost, reduction of waste, and maintaining quality.

Principle 6 – Continuous Automation of every process to manage time.

62. Mention the advantages of Git.

  • New code changes, branches of different versions, can be compared and merged effortlessly.
  • Code will be optimized for better performance.
  • Secures the codes and change history versions against accidental occurrences and malicious threats.
  • Flexible and easy to handle any sort of small-scale projects or large-scale projects depending on the scale of the business.
  • Widely accepted performance stool as it maintains the development standards and it is accepted all over the world.
  • Engineers working on several projects need to meet the customer requirements and make upgrades on the software application or a feature to improve functionality and usage. Therefore, the same quality is well maintained and balanced by Git.

63. Describe Forking workflow.

Forking makes you divide the workflow into two or more efficiently managed and organized software development coding, by representing each organized workflow in a feasible route to follow.

64. How to secure Jenkins?

Follow the steps to secure Jenkins:

  • Go to Manage Jenkins and choose the option Configure Global Security.
  • Choose Enable Security By default, you might want the central admin to identify its users. Unselect Allow Users to Sign Up, next click Save and leave the rest.
  • You will be asked to add the first user.
  • Set up, different users. Go to Manage Jenkins, scroll down click Manage Users.
  • Start to create other users also just like the admin user.
  • Go to Manage Jenkins, then next Configure Global Security, in the authorization section click Matrix Based Security.
  • If the user name is not in the list, add the name and then provide appropriate permissions to that user.
  • Finally, save the created authorizations.

65. State the benefits of NoSQL.

  • Manages large volumes of data at high speed by adding more systems or nodes.
  • Store data is unstructured, semi-structured, or structured.
  • Allow easy updates on fields and collected databases.
  • Be Developer-usability.
  • Making full advantage of the database by contracting and expanding automatically.

66. Mention the pros of Ansible.

  • It is an open-source tool.
  • Any specific codes are not required for usage and installation.
  • Works on highly complex IT workflows.
  • Manage the whole application environment, not considering where it needs to be deployed.
  • No separate management structure is required or software to automate ports on the client systems.
  • As separate software is not required, there’s enough room for application on the server.

67. Which is the best scripting language in DevOps?

Perl is the one efficient language that can run both hardware and software uniformly in different platforms, also this is much valuable scripting language in DevOps.

68. Describe Scrum.

Scrum is a structure where several complex problems are addressed by the teams and in parallel, working productively on achieving the delivery of products in high value creatively. It is self-organized, which helps teams bring out solutions to the most complex problems in the IT environment.

69. Which are the areas DevOps automation implemented?

  • Build Automation
  • Deployment Automation
  • Test Automation
  • Infrastructure Automation

70. Mention key differences between Hudson and Jenkins.

No such key differences between Hudson and Jenkins as both are Continuous Integration tools. By allowing them, the engineers can build code and test on an hourly or daily basis and deploy them to QA before the production phase.

71. State the uses of DevOps tools.

DevOps tools provide an opportunity to assist teams to manage complex target environments which wouldn’t be possible without engaging DevOps tools in the SDLC.

72. Can you explain the role of branching strategies used in DevOps?

The set of rules which stipulate the below-mentioned cases:

  • In which scenario, one should create a new branch?
  • From which branch the new branch is to be created?
  • When are the changes in the newly created branch to be merged?
  • What should be the target branch onto which the changes are to be merged?

73. Define anti-patterns in DevOps

Any action was taken during SDLC, which assists in solving short-term problems or issues but intact hurt the long-term goal of development is classified as an anti-pattern.

74. Mention various types of anti-patterns which you have observed in your DevOps experience.

  • Both DevOps and Agile are the same.
  • Involving tools to automate is the job of DevOps.
  • Always we need to have a designated team for DevOps.
  • DevOps doesn’t fit in with legacy systems.

75. What are the various DevOps-related job roles?

  • DevOps change agent.
  • Code release manager.
  • Automation architect.
  • Experience Assurance Expert.
  • DevOps Engineer.
  • DevOps Security Engineer.

76. Which are the continuous monitoring tools?

  • Akamai mPulse
  • AppDynamics
  • BMC Helix Operations Management
  • ChaosSearch
  • Dynatrace

77. Mention the docker tools used in the industry.

  • Puppet
  • Gradle
  • Chef
  • Ansible
  • AZK
  • Otter

78. Explain the benefits of Containerization in DevOps

It is essential to bind the target environment and application to execute the application in any of the computational target environments. Containerization makes sure that the environment is ideal for running the application without any configuration changes to be done for each of the target environments, thus reducing the turnaround time taken to deploy the code.

79. State the major difference between DevOps and Agile

Agile is more likely to be related to the Development phase whereas DevOps is related to the deployment phase of SDLC.

80. What do you mean by Docker Swarm?

Docker swarm is considered to be a bunch of either virtual or physical machines on which docker applications are running on a cluster.

81. What is tagging in Git?

In a given repository, Git provides us an opportunity to mark certain changes as important, and this feature where we can highlight such changes in version history is called Git tag.

82. What is Memcached?

Memcached is an open-source, distributed memory object caching system. The idea behind Memcached is to avoid reaching out to any database to obtain data which in turn increases the response time.

83. What is Chef?

Chef is considered an important automation tool to convert infrastructure into code by writing scripts.

84. Mention the full form of CAP.

  • Consistency
  • Availability
  • Partition tolerance

85. What is CAP theorem?

CAP theorem states that it is impossible to provide all the factors mentioned in Q.no 84 at once for any given distributed system.

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