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It is challenging to manage and store data in a way that can be used optimally when needed. Data structures help in the efficient use of data by reserving and handling data effectively. And these data structures are actively used in the prevalent and well-dominated language in the computer science world. This programming language is called ‘’Java”.

The definition of Data Structures in Java can be given as a‘’ collection of data pieces that offer an effective means of storing and managing data in computer’’.Data structures in Java are articulated in a specific manner. Precisely, It is designed according to the motive of that particular data.

In short Data structures in Java are objective-oriented and goal-oriented to a large extent. For example, many times data will be aligned to the data structures and algorithms in Java, if it is an algorithm-based operation. It is designed such that it showcases the relationship between the data. And also it can unveil the data’s worth.

## Importance of Data Structure-.

Mostly, unorganized data retrieved and stored in a computer is difficult to access. There comes the importance of data structures. Data structures help in the competent, ceaseless use of data without much effort. In brief, Data structures are used to convert abstract data into applications. Data structures are selected based on-:

- Type of Data used
- Usage of Data
- Storage area of Data
- Way of organization of Data

### How do the Data structures work?

- Act as data depot- This includes an assemblage of attributes and related features.
- Management of the data-A computer’s central operating system is working summoning the help of data structures for the appropriation of memory or process allocation
- Data transfer- It helps in transferring data from one application to another.
- Ordering and aligning-Data structures are also helpful in the alignment of the data according to the priority. Eg:-ordered or sorted binary tree
- Index- This is also used in indexing the data.
- Acts as observant- It helps in object-oriented searching.
- Expansion of Data- Data structures squeeze the elementary layout of the database without any doubt.

**What is Java?**

Java programming is an upper-level programming language introduced by sun microsystems. The predominant feature of Java programming is it is trustworthy. Moreover, it has a clear perspective and objective. Meanwhile, it is formulated on the WORA principle[write once run anywhere principle} which means we can use a Java program according to the number of times we need.

*The common types of Data Structures in Java *are * sorted out as follows:*

Array

Queue

Binary tree

Binary search tree

Stack

Linked list

Data structures in Java are arranged in linear or non-linear patterns. Among them, the linear arrangement is again subdivided into static and dynamic. The array comes under static. And, linked lists, stacks, and queues all come in the category of the dynamic linear arrangement. Furthermore, the tree and the graph are in the list of nonlinear data structure arrangements.

Majorly, Data structures are of two major types

- Primitive
- Non-primitive

## ARRAY>

The first one among the types of data structures in Java is Array. The array is the form of data structure in Java which is in linear form. Linear data structure arrangement means data will be arranged in a proper manner where each data element will have one connection.

The array is a type of data structure in Java in which alignment is such that, the same data group is bunched together in proximate memory points. Array data structures are of two types ie, single-dimensional and two or three-dimensional.

### Advantages of Array

- Adaptability to time – Array is a type of data structure example in which it is effortless and easy to procure data within the stable period
- Quick data reclamation- Data can be recaptured in a very speedy way as here data is arranged in adjacent locations. So there is less need for data procurement with huge databases like algorithms.
- Memory potent- Data stored in the neighboring positions is the elite feature of an array data system as this will help to have effective memory
- Multipurposeful and yielding- An array can skillfully store enormous types of data. For example, arrays retrieve a variety of data such as pointers, integers, characters, etc.
- Ideal for beginners-arrays are understandable and can be accessed by new users of the computer programming language java
- Harmonical in all environments- Array goes together with most of the hardware structures which makes it more adaptable.

### **Disadvantages of Array**

- The inflexible nature of array-complex data structures cannot be assigned with an array due to its concrete size. On the other hand, certain other data structures in Java are more accessible in this regard.
- Less space utility- A lot of unwanted space will be there in the array type of data structures in Java if data is not properly arranged.
- Including or excluding a data element-Inclusion or exclusion of a data element will not be very smooth or effortless.
- Earmarking of a large array will be a complicated issue mainly because many systems cannot sustain large memory if the array is of huge size.

## STACK DATA STRUCTURE IN JAVA

Stack is a linear data structure in Java, another example of data structures in Java is where data is arranged in an order differently compared to the array. Here data is allocated in a particular order that can be FILO or LIFO.FILO means first in last out and LIFO is last in first out. In short, a stack data structure in Java can be defined as “This is a data structure in which inclusion of an element and exclusion of an element takes place at the same time’’. In stack data structure accessibility of data, and elements can only be done at the top.

#### TOP OF THE STACK

It is the topmost point in a stack data structure in Java where all activities or operations are done including insertion and exertion of the data element.

To understand Stack data structure in Java we have to understand the basic operations done to make Stack productive. The basic actions are:

- PUSH-Inserting element
- POP-Exerting element
- Top- Reinvesting the topmost data element
- is EMPTY- It returns true if the stack is not filled otherwise it shows false
- SIZE-Returns to the size of the stack

Two Types of Stack-

There are two different types of stack:-

- Register stack- this is a type of stack data structure in Java that can handle only a small memory. Also, this is of confined length. We can also consider this as a memory unit.
- Memory stack-Memory data can work with a huge quantity of memory making it distinct from the register stack. It can be high or short adjusting to the memory data it should handle.

### Advantages of Stack type of Data structure

- Simplicity-Stack is an example of data structures in Java even, beginners can use easily.
- Well-organized memory applications in stack memory units are arranged in adjacent positions. Consequently, it has an efficient memory-utilizing capacity.
- Stack is quickly attainable and is a well-arranged data structure that can be manipulated in a very fast way.

- It nourishes functional calls- Stack helps recursive functional calls to administrate properly.
- Undo and Redo applications data structure is efficient in accessing undo and redo applications which can enhance many operations like graphic designing.
- Antiquarian design- Stack data structure is used in the gathered form of design for analyzing various programming languages.

### Disadvantages of stack data structure in Java

As the pros of stack data structure in Java are discussed above we will have a glance at some of the cons of stack data structure.

Major disadvantages are:-

- Spot operations are denied- In stack-type of data structures all operations are carried out on the topmost pointer. So inclusion or exclusion of data elements can be done only at the top and not at the central data element. So this decreases the smoothness of the process.
- Disintegrated memory- This is an example of data structure in Java where, If the data elements are persistently added or removed it can collapse the memory unit. This happens due to its contiguous data element arrangement.

3.. Confined capability- There is some restriction in the number of elements that can be added as it can damage the memory.

- Excess insertion and removal- If too many data elements are added on the top or if data is excluded than a limit at the bottom then it can disrupt the overall data structure
- Reserved recursive function calls- There is some restriction in recursive function calls as they can demolish the total data structure processing.

## QUEUE DATA STRUCTURE IN JAVA

The queue data structure in Java is in the form of a linear structure. Here, data elements are linear. As the term ‘’Queue’’ suggests here data is arranged just like we stand in a queue. To be clear, here the first come first flow system is used. Therefore, this is a system where the data element inserted first will be removed first.

STRUCTURE OF QUEUE- The structure of the queue is such that it will have a head or top where data elements are added and there will be a tail or bottom where the addition of data will take place.

Now we should see the major advantages and disadvantages of Queue data structure.

### Advantages of the Queue Data Structure

- Multiple-person usage- A queue can be used by many people at the same time.
- Speedy process in the data transfer is another advantage of Queue data structure in Java.
- Collaboration- this data structure can be used with other types of data structures for data retrieval.

- Giant data handling- Queue is a type of data structure in Java that can handle expanded data without any hurdles.
- First in First out rule- The process of data handling is easier with the first in first out rule in Queue data structures.

### Disadvantages

- Less capacity- The area of consumption in the Queue data structure in Java is less
- Limitation in space- Space that can be used for data transfer in the Queue structure is pre-decided.
- Operations with middle elements are difficult- It is a cumbersome process to include or exclude an element from the mid part of the data structure.
- Data searching is not easy- In this example of data structure in Java, searching for particular data is time-consuming.

## LINKED LIST

The linked list is another example of the type of data structure in Java Among the type of linear data structure in Java, it is different from an array or queue as here the data elements are not at the adjacent positions However, there will be nodes that connect each data element to the succeeding data element. Also, each connecting node will contain a referral link and a data field.

Apart from this,

A linked list is another example of the type of data structure easier to use comparing some other data structures because in the linked list there is no limitation in the memory allocation. Also, the inclusion or exclusion of a data element is easier here.

The pros and Cons of the Linked list are as follows-

### Advantages of linked list data structure in Java

- It is dynamic
- Memory can be increased or decreased at the processing time itself as data elements are not at the neighboring points.
- Well-adapted memory is another positive side of the linked list as memory utility is not decided in advance.
- Smooth accessibility without many obstacles and less time is another advantage
- Linked lists can work in collaboration with other data structures at needed times is an added advantage.

### Disadvantages of linked data structure in Java

- Reachability to any particular node is difficult. This is because we need to crossover all the pointers leading to that particular node. The reason is, that the data elements are not in a contagious position.
- Movement in the reverse direction is also difficult due to the requirement for more memory
- More memory is required as data elements are not at adjacent points.

## BINARY TREE DATA STRUCTURE IN JAVA

The binary tree is a non-linear data structure in Java. In this type of data structure, there will be a pointer and it will have a minimum of two branches. The pointer is the uppermost part and is called as root. This pointer will have two nodes on both sides, the left node, and the right node.

There are some advantages and disadvantages to the binary tree data structure

### Advantages

- Easy to sort
- Quickness in searching for a data element as it has a root and two nodes on the left and right side
- Manageable roaming is possible through the structure for searching or inclusion or exclusion
- Including or deleting data is easier
- Larger memory storage is possible as there are two sub-pointers with each nodal point.

### Disadvantages

- Space limitation is the prior problem with binary trees. This is because larger trees with immense memory will have only confined space
- Time complexity- In certain situations, search operations can go down to 0[n]
- A confined structure will be of less use in certain operations.

## BINARY SEARCH TREE

A binary search tree is a data structure example in Java in which nodal elements are given in a stratified order. It is a nonlinear type of data structure. Also, the specific feature of the binary search tree is that the left node should have less value and the right node must be of more value compared to the main node.

#### Advantages and Disadvantages of Binary Search Tree

There are certain advantages and on the contrary, some negative traits with a binary search tree

### ADVANTAGES

- High competence is the first advantage of a binary search tree. The reason is its prime function is storage so that only less memory is required.
- Coding language is easy to understand
- Including or removing a data element is comparatively easier
- Ordered sorting is a key feature of the binary search tree[searching can be done in the order the data is included]
- Moreover, adjustability according to the data size increase is also a positive characteristic of the binary search tree.

### DISADVANTAGES

- The major disadvantage is the necessity of a balanced search tree or else imbalances cost-effectiveness of the binary search tree.
- Complex nature of a disrupted binary search tree
- Instant access to certain data elements is not possible
- It will not support certain operations that differentiate it from an array or other linear data structures.

## HEAP DATA STRUCTURE IN JAVA

The heap data structure in Java is a binary tree with much more complexity. However, there are two types of heap data structures. Those are the max heap tree and min heap tree. The Max heap tree is where the parent node should have the maximum value. On the contrary, the min head node is in which the parent node will contain the minimum value.

### Advantages of Heap Data Structure in Java

- Insertion and deletion of data elements happen at the bottom of a data structure making the process more convenient.
- Also, maintaining a queue based on the importance of the data element is also making the heap easier to deal with.
- Memory requirement is less Thereby it is maintaining space utility.
- In addition, random access to the highest and lowest data elements makes it easier to cross over to the needed element, especially in data structures and algorithms.

### Disadvantages of Heap Data Structure in Java

- The predominant demerit of heap data structure is it is not flexible with all the operations.
- Searchability is difficult with heap as inclusion and exclusion are only at the bottom .so roaming to get a value requires a lot of time.
- At the time of alterations, the data structure will be disturbed.

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- <Coding blocks, Bangalore
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- Ravi’s Coder Club, Mumbai
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