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Tensed to face Embedded System Courses Interview? So this article will help you prepare for your interview with possible questions and answers.

Embedded c interview questions are hardware and software packages built to execute a specialised function on a computer. Moreover, the system conducts a fixed function or a program. Embedded systems are mostly used in industries. The embedded market demands huge growth due to constant investments in artificial intelligence and computing. Therefore it is a good career scope.

So here are some best-embedded systems interview questions and answers useful for interested candidates. These questions are the most asked in the interview.

Top Embedded Systems Courses Interview Questions

1. What are the Essential Components of the Embedded System?

A:  An embedded c interview questions has the following vital components for working of its hardware:

  • Power Supply: The power supply is a crucial part of an embedded system circuit.
  • Processor: A processor is an important brain inside an embedded system.
  • Memory: Memory reserves data and instructions in an embedded system.
  • Timers: They are the counters.
  • Communication: These are Ports.
  • Input and Output.
  • Application– Particular Circuits.

Embedded system software: Softwares in an embedded system are a set of codes, designed to achieve various or specific functions. Further, most embedded c interview questions software operates on micro-controllers.

 It studies the accessibility of System Memory and Processor Speed.

Real-Time Operating System (OS): It operates a process as scheduled and executes, switching from one process to another when required.

2. What are the Benefits of an Embedded system?

A: Some merits of embedded systems are

Images
  • It is certified
  • Embedded is budget-friendly and small in size
  • It assures mass production
  • Its operations are quick and need low power
  • It boosts product quality

 3. Why are the Buses Used for Communication in Embedded Systems?

A: In an embedded system, the buses used for communication are: 

  • I2C: Applied for communication between multiple ICS
  • CAN: It is useful in automobiles with a centrally controlled network
  • USB: It is workable for communication between CPU and devices like mouse, etc.

While ISA, EISA, and PCI are standard buses for parallel communication in PCs, computer network devices, and many others.

4. What is a Microcontroller?

A: In an embedded system, a microcontroller is a tiny in-build circuit that governs a specific operation. So, a microcontroller comprises a single chip’s CPU, memory, and input/output (I/O) peripherals. Moreover, a microcontroller is a self-sufficient system that may be workable as an embedded systems interview questions.

5. How Can we avoid Errors in Segmentation Fault?

A: The Errors to avoid in the following manner: 

  • Modifying the pointer properly.
  • Also, reducing the use of pointers
  • Troubleshooting

6. what is a Watchdog Timer?

A: A watchdog timer is an electronic device or card that performs a specific operation after a definite period if something goes wrong with an electronic system.

7. What the Need for an Infinite Loop in Embedded Systems is?

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A: Embedded systems need infinite loops for continuous processing or monitoring the program’s state.  For example, the case of a program state constantly being verified for any errors that might just happen during run-time like memory outage or divide by zero, etc.

8. What is the DMA Address? And How to Deal With it?

A: Direct memory access (DMA) speeds up memory operations by permitting an input or output (I/O) device to convey or receive data directly to or from the main memory, bypassing the CPU.

DMA addresses have physical addresses. During data transfer, it is a device that straight drives the data and address bus. As a result, it’s only a physical address.

9. What is a Semaphore?

A:  In a concurrent system, such as a multiprogramming operating system, a semaphore is a conceptual data type or variable applied to control access to a shared resource by many processes. 

Further, Semaphores often used for two vital aims

  • To be able to allocate a common recollection
  • To permit others to file also.

10. Is it Possible to Pass or Return a Value or a Parameter to ISR?

A: It is not possible because ISR does not permit anything to pass or return from it.

11. Why does Interrupt Latency Occur?

A: It occurs because : 

  • The signal synchronisation with the CPU leans on the hardware of the processor. Further, It can get up to 3 CPU cycles for a signal to arrive in the processor.
  • So, after establishing an instruction, it gets extra CPU cycles to refill the pipeline again with the instructions. 

12.  How to Reduce Interrupt Latency?

A: Interrupt latency is minimised by shortening the ISR routines.

13. How to Drop a character pointer from pointing to a distinct address?

A: As a constant safe pointer from modifications, the pointer should be specific as a constant character pointer.

14. What is Known as Memory Leak?

A: A memory leak happens when the developers develop objects or use the memory to support memory and then forget to free it before finishing the program. So, it can lead to lessening memory availability and often smash the application.

15.  Explain Some Common Errors in an Embedded system?

A: Some of the common errors that happen in an embedded c interview questions are as follows:

  • Data lines nonfunctioning
  • Some memory locations become unavailable.
  • Address line defective due to a short in the circuit.
  • Also, Ruin memory devices.
  • Inaccurate control signals.

16. Is it Possible to Use Semaphore, Mutex, or Spinlock in Interrupt Context in Linux Kernel?

A: Semaphore or Mutex cannot be applied to interrupt context in Linux Kernel. At the same time, spinlocks can be used for locking in an interrupt context.

17.  Explain Automotive Embedded System.

A: Automotive embedded c interview questions is a computer system designed for electronic devices that controls the mechanism of data and also devices.

18. What is an Embedded C?

A: Embedded C is a part of the C programming language. Hence, It develops applications based on microcontrollers like Cameras, WiFi, etc.

 19. What are Recursive Functions?

A: The technique of recurring objects in a self-similar manner is known as recursion. A recursive call of the function happens when a program allows calling a function inside another function.

20. What is the Concept of Memory Leaks?

A: A memory leak is a resource leak that happens when a computer software frugally controls memory allocations, preventing memory from being released that is no longer required. 

This is known as a memory leak when an item is saved in memory but cannot be allowed by the running code.

21. Explain Automotive Embedded System?

A: An automotive embedded system is a computer system that can operate as a control system for electronic devices that additionally change the mechanism of the automobile or its data.

22. What is an Embedded C System?

A: Embedded C is an inclusive version of the C programming language. Moreover, it is used to build applications based on micro-controllers like device drivers (WIFI device drivers, Camera device drivers, etc.)

23. State the Four Levels of Testing in Embedded Systems.

A: The four levels of testing are

  1. Unit testing
  2. Integration testing
  3. System testing
  4. User acceptance testing

 24. What do you mean by Equivalence Partitioning?

A: Equivalence partitioning means creating a test case to find errors in a group or a class.

25. Highlight Some Common Testing Tools for Embedded Systems?

A: The common testing tools for embedded systems are:

  • QTP (Quick Test Professional)
  • LoadRunner
  • WinRunner
  • Silk Test
  • TestDirector

26. Explain Soft and Hard Real-Time Systems?

A: A hard-real-time system is one in which omitting even a deadline can result in a total or catastrophic system crash.

27. Explain Software Quality Assurance?

A:  Software testing and quality assurance states to the software upgradation process:

  • Enhance and monitor the process
  • Also ensuring that processes and standards are followed
  • Confirming that the problems are found and rectified.

 28. How to Swap Two Variables?

A: Variables can be swapped in the following ways

  • Using excess memory space
  • Applying arithmetic operators
  • Also, utilizing Bitwise operators
  • Applying One-Liner Bitwise operators
  • Applying One-Liner Arithmetic operators

29. How the Embedded System is Useful?

A: With an embedded system, it is possible to displace dozens or even more hardware logic gates, input buffers, timing circuits, output drivers, etc., with a relatively low-price microprocessor.

30. Why is a ‘volatile’ Keyword in Used Embedded C?

A: The volatile keyword blocks the compiler from optimising objects that can alter in ways the compiler cannot think. Objects marked as volatile are not optimised because their values can be updated at any time by code outside the scope of the present function.

31. Explain the Different Types of Buses used by Embedded Systems?

A: The various type of buses are:

  • Memory Bus
  • Multiplexed Bus
  • De-multiplexed Bus
  • Input/Output Bus

32. Give Some Live Examples of Embedded Systems Use.

A: Embedded Systems used in :

  • Detecting the speed of vehicles on a highway and intimating the authorities.
  • Sensing the proper location of a vehicle by using GPS.
  • Also, the Automation system in houses with the aid of android-operated remotes.

33. Is printf() used inside ISR?

A: No, it is not used in ISR because printf() is a non-reentrant and thread-safe function.

34. What is Buses’s use for communication in an embedded system?

A: The buses used for the spread in embedded systems are:

  • I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) transmit between numerous integrated circuits (ICs).
  • CAN (Controller Area Network) is a network protocol utilised in cars with a centrally controlled network.
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a standard interface between a computer’s processor and peripheral devices such as a mouse.

35. Which is faster ++I or i+1?

A: ++i is faster because it uses single machine instruction; in contrast, i+1 needs loading. 

Conclusion

This article extensively discusses the most common and vital embedded systems interview questions and answers briefly. Hope this page helps you in your interview.

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FAQ ‘ s

Q 1. Which software is applied for Embedded Systems?

Ans: Generally, embedded systems use basic software like C, C++, ADA, etc. The Specialized systems apply operating systems like Windows CE, LINUX, TreadX, Nucleus RTOS, OSE, etc

Q 2. Which are the different Embedded Tools?

1. Text editor
2. Compiler
3. Assembler
4. Debugger
5. Linker

Q 3. What are the types of Embedded Systems?

1. Small-scale embedded systems
2. Medium-scale embedded systems
3. Complex embedded systems

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