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We are living in the world of technology. Gadgets that are once luxuries have now become necessities. It became difficult to imagine lives without them. Automation is the new norm while the manual is outdated. Humans are now aiming to control everything with the click of a button. That is when the internet of things (IoT) came into existence. It helps you control everything with a click on your smartphone. A rigorous development in IoT technologies is opening doors to numerous lucrative career options.
IoT Interview Question and Answers
1. What is Internet-Of-Things (IoT) all about?
Ans. This is the most general question asked in an IoT interview. Internet of Things (IoT) is a set of automation technologies that can help control devices around you such as TV, AC, lights, etc., using smart devices.
The things in IoT refer to a web of people or physical objects. These things are embedded with software, sensors, etc that aid in controlling, collecting, and exchange of data to run devices remotely.
2. How does IoT impact the healthcare industry?
Ans. From attaining more precision in testing to making surgeries, IoT devices in the healthcare industries have largely contributed to making medical practices more efficient, transparent, and affordable. It is because of IoT technologies, complex surgeries are brought down to simple and hassle-free procedures.
3. Name the types of data used in IoT devices’ communication.
Ans. There is no defined limit for the types of data that IoT can process or store. Any data that is a part of the cloud from one device to another. But, the type of data that is communicated depends upon various parameters such as the setting of sensors, environment, etc. Data-related questions are given high weightage in an IoT interview.
4. What are the Two types of IoT?
Ans. Internet of Things (IoT) helps build greater products and helps organizations with technological requirements. Whereas the Industrial Internet of Things(IIoT) focuses on the industrial economy.
5. Why is the Internet of everything important?
Ans. Internet of everything uses data and helps organizations build products from new opportunities. People, processes, devices, and data are critical to meaning network links meaningful, and the internet of everything is an integral part of it.
6. How does IoT impact the transportation sector?
Ans. Starting with global positioning systems (GPS) to in-vehicle entertainment, and advanced driver assistance systems, the transportation sector stands first in adopting IoT technology. IoT made driving a cakewalk for many new users these days.
7. Name IoT-friendly databases.
Ans. Apache Cassandra, RethinkDB, Sqlite, MongoDB, etc are widely used in IoT applications.
8. What are the common types of CAN Frames?
Ans. Data frame, remote frame, error frame, and overload frame are some of the most commonly used CAN Frames
9. Define Raspberry Pi
Ans. It is a card-size computer that is used to control, connect and communicate with external electronic devices.
Learn more about working on Raspberry Pi, and Sense HAT, and gain hands-on experience with Azure IoT Hub & Alexa’s voice. You can master IoT Ecosystem, Framework, Solution Architecture, Network Protocols, and many more through the Henry Harvin IoT course.
10. Explain the definition and features of Arduino.
Ans. One can create electronics projects using Arduino. It is a platform that provides feasible software and hardware solutions Some of the features of easy to use, open source, and cross-platform that can run on different devices. In an IoT interview, interviewers try to test your technical knowledge through these questions.
11. Explain WSN
Ans. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of notes. It is used to analyze and map the physical parameters of an application.
12. Define Zigbee
Ans. Zigbee is used for the same function as Bluetooth. It is widely used in complex systems for its high security, low power function, and robustness.
13. Help us with the definition of the Z-Wave
Ans. Lamp controllers and home automation controllers use Z-Wave. It is an IoT application and uses low-power RF communication.
14. Explain MQTT
Ans. Message Queue Telemetry Transport Protocol is the full form of MQTT. It is a protocol that is used to keep track of devices on the Internet of Things.
15. Define Asset Tracking
Ans. Asset tracking is also known as asset management. It is a process to monitor information and physical properties.
16. What do you think is the difference between IoT networks and wireless sensor networks?
Ans. IoT constitutes cloud storage, WSN, internet, mobile or web application. Whereas Wireless Sensor Network constitutes environment tracking and wireless network.
17. What is the definition of Shodan?
Ans. Shodan is an application that is used to monitor the number of online computers. It helps in identifying and tracking the devices that have straight internet connectivity.
18. To control GPIO pins, what is the python libraries Raspberry Pi use?
Ans. GPIOand RPi are two main python libraries used in Raspberry Pi to control GPIO pins.
19. What is IoT Contiki mean?
Ans. IoT Contiki was developed exclusively for small Internet-connected devices. It is a software program. It is used in:
- Program management,
- Process management,
- Memory management and
- Resource management.
20. How do u run Raspberry Pi while in headless mode?
Ans. Raspberry Pi uses SSH for running in headless mode. Operating systems with inbuilt VNC servers can take remote desktops on Raspberry Pi.
21. Name some of the popular IoT using software IDEs
Ans. Production IDEs i.e, the Arduino IDE GCC compilers, Keil IDE, etc are integral to prototype system families.
22. Name some of the popular IoT using hardware prototypes.
Ans. Popular IoT hardware prototypes are
- ARM Cortex Family and
- Raspberry Pi
23. What are the different Raspberry Pi models?
Ans. Raspberry Pi models are
- Raspberry Pi Zero
- Raspberry Pi Zero W
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model A
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model A+
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model B
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+
- Raspberry Pi 2
- Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
This is the topic that’s mostly touched upon in an IoT interview.
24. Explain Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol.
Ans. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol is widely used in the development of low-cost microcontrollers. It is less complex and has minimal electricity latency. It also had another name Bluetooth Smart because of its distinctive Bluetooth.
25. Name hardware communication interfaces used in Arduino board.
Ans. I2C, PWM, Serial, and SPI are some of the important hardware communication interfaces used in the Arduino board. You can expect a considerable number of technical IoT interview questions like this.
26. What is IoT’s Bluegiga APX4 protocol?
Ans. 450mhz arm9 processor-based Bluegiga APX 4 supports widely used Bluetooth and Wi-Fi services. This protocol is very famous because it complies with other protocols
27. Define IoT Thingworx
Ans. IoT Thingworx is an application development end-to-end technology platform. This platform is used for developing, launching, and scaling critical, connected, and sensible devices. It is mostly used in the industrial Internet of Things
28. Explain the use of IoT in Law enforcement
Ans. You can expect general implication questions like this in an IoT interview.
- The use of IoT minimizes manual labor and helps make better decisions through advanced automation.
- Through the use of IoT devices, the judicial system can make better decisions by minimizing tedious procedures, reducing corruption and cost, and better-managed pieces of evidence.
- IoT can minimize the involvement of lawyers in most legal proceedings
29. Do you think customers should worry about the quantum of information IoT collects from its users?
Ans. IoT gadgets collect humongous personal data. As this technology is still in its nascent stage one cannot completely trust these devices. However, companies are trying their best to protect potential user data through end-to-end encryption, authentication, security, etc. Therefore, we cannot agree that customers are riskfree when using these devices
30. Define Pulse Width Modulation
Ans. Digital technology, Pulse Wide Modulation (PWM) is a technique that is used to modulate the amount of power consumed by a device. PWM analog signals are widely used in IoT devices because of their very low power loss in switching devices.
31. Name the antennas used in IoT devices.
Ans. In Internet-of-Things devices use antennas to enable communication with a great wireless range. Chip, PCB, Whip, Wire, and Proprietary are the most common type of antennas used in IoT devices
32. Explain one difference between Raspberry Pi and Arduino.
Ans. A major difference between these two is that Raspberry Pi users can run multiple programs while Arduino platform users can run only a single program at a time.
33. Name the most common sensors used in IoT.
Ans. Sensors are the major game changers when it comes to using IoT devices. They play a critical role in ensuring connectivity, controllability, and functionality of the devices. Temperature, motion detection, smoke, proximity, IR, and pressure sensors are the most commonly used IoT sensors
34. What is the use of IoT in one’s day-to-day life?
Ans. In an IoT interview, interviews try to gauge how well you could relate to and understand everyday challenges. Different gadgets can easily communicate with each other using IoT technologies. These technologies create a conjoint environment to automate processes that facilitate human life. It can be controlling your AC from your car to watering your plants, though you are in Hawaii on holiday.
The use of IoT is soon going to be necessary as its uses range from sensor-driven home appliances like refrigerators that turn off automatically when not in use to virtual assistants that can control the majority of your devices, from your lights to your television, from your air conditioning to playing your favorite music. IoT is simply not just about our technology. Wearables have developed from IoT technologies.
35. Explain how IoT Works.
Ans. AI or Artificial intelligence is critical to the functioning of IoT devices. Using instinctual performance and connectivity, IoT technology includes sensor devices and distinctive data processing techniques. IoT devices combine several cutting-edge technologies to enable automation in different ways. Different parts of IoT are categorized into four groups:
- Cloud components,
- Data processing software, and
- Cutting-edge user interfaces.
36. What are the components of IoT?
Ans. Another important IoT interview question is about its components. IoT technologies have four very critical components. Let’s discuss one by one:
Devices or Sensors – Sensors/devices are the most discussed concept in an IoT interview. They are vital in the development of IoT gadgets. They gather complex, real-time data from the surroundings it is operating in. Data collected by sensors can range from measuring the temperature, to feed from videos
Connectivity: Once sensors collect data, it’s time to put it to use. The data gathered is transmitted to a cloud infrastructure. The sensors are needed to be linked to the cloud through a plethora of communication channels. WANs, Bluetooth, satellite networks, Wi-Fi or mobile, etc are some of the notable communication channels.
Data Processing: The software products start processing the data, once it is collected and stored in the cloud by communication channels. This involves a range of processes from simple tasks such as reading on devices like AC or heaters, checking the temperature, and so on to very complex processes such as identifying objects, using computer vision on video, etc.
User Interface: Users need a functional interface to check the IoT system. Users get data about their IoT-connected gadgets through email or text notifications or triggered alarms sometimes.
37. Help us with IoT disadvantages
Ans. Interviewers try to understand your capability to recognize the underlining challenges by asking these kinds of questions in an IoT interview. IoT is the budding technology that is going to transform the way people live. However, with merits come disadvantages too. They are:
Security: In the use of IoT technology, devices are interconnected. During this process, users may experience restricted authentication control. This is one of the major reasons despite being safeguarded by cybersecurity laws.
Privacy: IoT devices use and generate a lot of personal data on regular basis. This keeps its users concerned about their security and privacy.
Flexibility: The flexibility IoT technologies offer is a major source of concern. System integration is a major concern as different systems are involved in the process.
Complexity: The design, deployment, and maintenance of IoT gadgets are cumbersome.
Compliance: IoT has complex setup, control, and maintenance. These factors are capable of creating loopholes that make compliance quite strenuous.
38. Explain general applications of IoT.
Ans. Common applications of IoT include:
Smart Thermostats: These are extensively used in heating devices. Their ability to regulate temperature help in power saving and cost reduction.
Connected Cars: Autonomous management of insurance, billing, parking and other tasks in the automotive industry are made possible by IoT technologies.
Activity Trackers: skin temperature monitoring, physical activity, calorie intake heart rate patterns, weight loss, etc. are monitored by IoT-powered activity trackers.
Parking Sensors: Users can comfortably find parking space’s real-time availability through IoT-powered mobile devices.
Connect Health: Use of IoT technologies in health care facilitates real-time health monitoring and patient care. It helps doctors take better data-backed medical decisions.
39. What are the challenges people face with IoT?
Ans. This is one of the common IoT interview questions. So, the important IoT challenges include:
- Poor testing and upgradation
- Concerns regarding data privacy and security
- Complicated processes
- Huge data and interpretation
- AI integration and Automation
- Need for uninterrupted power supply
- Short-range conversation and communication
40. What are the top companies that are working on IoT?
Ans. Apple, Google, LG, Samsung, and Philips are the major pioneers. Their contribution to the rigorous development of IoT technologies is commendable.
41. Name a few most common types of testing methods used in IoT.
Ans. IoT device testing contains:
Usability testing: Each user is unique. They use a range of gadgets of different shapes and numerous form factors. It is vital to assess the system’s usability while developing IoT applications with changing trends in customer tastes and behaviors.
Testing for compatibility: The Internet of Things (IoT) network is efficient n connecting a greater range of devices. They come in a variety of software and hardware packages. Thus checking the IoT systems’ interoperability is crucial because of enormous combinations.
Testing for Reliability and Scalability: Through virtualization technologies and tools, it is simple to build IoT test environments that simulate sensors.
42. Do you think there is enough penitration of IoT devices in the market today?
Ans. IoT devices are gaining importance because of their significant role in increasing global capital and ubiquitous nature. Experts say that IoTs would be generating close to 14.4 trillion USD across various businesses in the next ten years. Using the Internet of Things in daily life may look complex. It is not. Carbon and IOT footprints are seen in every element of existence. It can be from trackers filled watches, measuring real-time body parameters to automated refrigerators that turn off when not in use. Siri and Alexa are universal examples that represent the glory of IoT technologies. You expect this question in your IoT interview.
43. What is the role of IoT in developing smart cities?
Ans. AI and innovation-powered IoT has left no stone unturned in making urban planning and public utilities extremely intuitive. This two-pronged blessing paved the foundation for the development of smart cities and smart homes. With better network involvement and innate features of gadgets, IoT technology skyrockets infrastructure development with efficiency, openness, and flexibility. IoT aids in the successful completion of energy-efficient projects. Because of the plethora of benefits IoT offers, governments can comfortably use IoT technologies and create smart cities across the world. IoT helps in creating:
- Intelligent energy grids,
- Automated waste management systems,
- Smart houses,
- Better security systems,
- Better traffic management mechanisms,
- Advanced security features, and
- Water conservation mechanisms
44. What is the major advantage of IoT?
Ans. The IoT devices conserve energy through context-aware automation. For instance, automating the use of refrigerators, ACs, and light fixtures which turn off when not in use can save 40% of the total electricity consumed by these devices. It’s benefits also include:
- Developing environmentally friendly technologies and
- Aid in reducing carbon emissions from devices.
45. How does an increased use of IoT impact the industrial economy?
Ans. IoT has a significant impact on several industrial economies. It helps in reducing labor and energy costs with significant development in reduced response time and human interventions, resource management, etc. Thereby, strengthening industrial supply networks and empowering efficient product distributions. IoT helps industries become economically surplus and enhance manufacturing infrastructure.
Organizations are continuously raising the bar by striving toward extending the internet from smart devices to simple devices. With development comes challenges and organizations are continuously looking for talented folks to that can help them decode these challenges. We hope that these top 45 IoT interview questions and answers can help you be that guy and help you crack your dream job with ease.
Make sure you are good with your IoT basics to answer these questions. Innovation is quintessential in the development of IoT-powered devices. So, imbibe an innovative mindset. This will help you create exceptional products. If you observe the interview questions there is a healthy balance between technical and general implications. Try and understand IoT and its applicability in public welfare and how well it contributes to economical development. All the very best for your upcoming IoT interview.
Ans. Though IoT looks complex in reality, it is not. If you can master the art of using data to drive business outcomes then it would be a cakewalk for you. You need not be a perfectionist to crack an IoT interview. IoT helps in building products that are energy efficient and at low cost.
Ans. Well, the answer is “NOT necessarily”.
Ans. IoT technology development needs a variety of programming languages and frameworks. To start a successful IoT career you need to be comfortable working with at least one layer of an IoT architecture.
Ans. With the never-ending technological advancements, there come many challenges which the firms are trying to answer. Data became the center of critical decisions. IoT professionals work with this data, analysis it and attempt to use it in the best way possible to support business decisions. If you have a flair for data and can empathize with your customer, this is the right fit for you. You need to use your skills and come up with solutions to challenges companies are facing right now.
Ans. Cloud Engineer, Data Scientist, Data Visualization Expert, Network Engineer, and Material Specialist are some of the renowned IoT roles.
Ans. Salaries may vary depending upon the kind of IoT role you are hired for. Pay scale can range from 8 lakhs to 13 lakhs and above depending on the role.